. In 1912 Senator Augustus Bacon and Congressman Charles Bartlett, Georgia Democrats, introduced identical measures--S. 6266 and H.R. 23,189 (62d Cong., 2d sess.)--to limit the use of injunctions and exempt labor unions from the provisions of Sherman Antitrust Act. They reintroduced the bills in 1913.
. John Philip Frey (1871-1957) a member of the Iron Molders' Union of North America edited the union’s journal (1903-1927).
. Jackson H. Ralston (1857-1945), a former printer, was a partner in the Washington, D. C. law firm Ralston and Siddons.
. Frank Morrison (1859-1949), a member of the International Typographical Union and a lawyer, was secretary of the AFL (1897-1935).
. M. Grant Hamilton served as an AFL salaried organizer (1903-12, 1914-15, 1918-19) and as a member of the AFL Legislative Committee (1908, 1912-13, 1918).
. Arthur E. Holder (1860-1937)a member of the International Association of Machinists, served on the AFL Legislative Committee from 1906 to 1917.
. H.R. 15,657 (63d Cong., 2d sess.) was introduced by Democratic congressman Henry Clayton of Alabama on Apr. 14, 1914, and approved with amendments by the House of Representatives on June 5. It was referred to the Senate Committee on the Judiciary on June 6, reported out of committee on July 22, and approved by the Senate with amendments on Sept. 2. The House and Senate appointed a conference committee to resolve their differences on Sept. 4. The Senate agreed to the conference committee's report on Oct. 5, the House did so on Oct. 8, and the bill was signed into law on Oct. 15.
Known as the Clayton Antitrust Act
, the law strengthened and supplemented the Sherman Antitrust Act and included several labor provisions sought by the AFL. Section 6 of the act declared that "the labor of a human being is not a commodity or article of commerce" and that "nothing contained in the antitrust laws shall be construed to forbid the existence and operation of labor . . . organizations . . . or to forbid or restrain individual members of such organizations from lawfully carrying out the legitimate objects thereof." Section 20 prohibited the use of injunctions in labor disputes except to prevent irreparable injury to property, and it declared that strikes, peaceful picketing, and boycotts were not violations of the law. Section 22 provided for jury trials in criminal contempt cases (U.S. Statutes at Large, 38: 730-40, quotations at p. 731).
. A reference to H.R. 23,635 (62d Cong., 2d sess.), introduced by Clayton in 1912, and H.R. 4659 and H.R. 5484 (63d Cong., 1st sess.), which he introduced, respectively, on May 5 and May 23, 1913.
. James O'Connell (1858-1936), former president of the International Association of Machinists, was president of the AFL Metal Trades Department (1911-34).
. Albert Julius Berres was a member of the executive board of the Pattern Makers' League of North America (1909-14) and secretary-treasurer of the AFL Metal Trades Department (1908-27).
. Andrew Furuseth was president of the International Seamen's Union of America (1897-99, 1908-38) and secretary of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific (1891-92, 1892-1936).
.Victor A. Olander served as secretary (1909-20) of the Lake Seamen's Union (from 1919, the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes), vice-president (1902-25) of the International Seamen's Union of America, and secretary-treasurer (1914-49) of the Illinois State Federation of Labor.
. Edward N. Nockels, a member of International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 134 of Chicago, was secretary of the Chicago Federation of Labor from 1901 until his death in 1937.
. Apr. 15, 1914, reel 181, vol. 193, SG Letterbooks, DLC. The bill was amended to correct this oversight.
. Ellipses in original.